Historical Timeline


Civilization Emerges
3000-2700 BCE

Hieroglyphic writing

Linen weaving

Middle Kingdom
2000-1400 BCE

Trade with the Near East

Trade with Nubia ( Africa)

Government, taxation made stable

Outside Rule
1200 BCE - 500 CE

Rule by outside powers

Egypt part of the Roman Empire

Old Kingdom
3100-2200 BCE

Upper and Lower Egypt unified (3100)

Great Pyramid at Giza built (2540)

Bronze introduced from Near East

Horse and chariot brought from Near East

New Kingdom
1500-1200 BCE

Egypt dominates in Near East

Temple building, Karnak and Luxor

Akhenaten introduces worship of one god (1350s)

“Sea Peoples” drive Egypt from Palestine (1200s)




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Neolithic Culture, Southern Europe
3000-1500 BCE

Megalith construction


Rise of the Greeks
1100-500 BCE

Iron weapons; Greek “Dark Age” (1100-750)

Phoenician alphabet adopted

Homer at work

Greeks defeat Persia (479)

Minoan Culture, Aegean Region
2800-1700 BCE

Indo-European “Greeks” enter Greece

Bronze first used in Greece

Minoans start to build on Crete

Mycenean Culture, Aegean Region
1700-1100 BCE

Myceneans build palaces

Greek writing in Linear B

A Trojan War?

Classical Greece, Rome
500 BCE - 500 CE

Greek culture flowers

Alexander builds an empire (336-323)

Hellenistic kingdoms

Rome forms a republic (509)

Roman Empire rules Mediterranean and Europe (by 1 CE)

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First Walled Cities
3000-2500 BCE

Walled cities develop

Phoenician city-states; trade with Egypt

Schools for scribes in Mesopotamia

First written texts, Mesopotamia

Hittite Empire
1700-1200 BCE

Hittite empire (1600-1200)

Hittites first to use iron for tools, weapons

Phoenician alphabet develops

Empires Clash
500 BCE - 500 CE

Huge Persian Empire rises, then falls

Rise of Christianity

Rome burns Carthage (146)

Mesopotamian Culture
2200-1700 BCE

The horse introduced

Epic of Gilgamesh written down ( Mesopotamia)

Phoenicians trade across the Mediterranean

Hammurabi’s Code of Laws (Mesopotamia, 1700s)

Many Cultures
1000-500 BCE

Phoenicians found colony of Carthage (814)

Jerusalem thriving as Hebrew capital

Brief Hittite revival

Assyrian military might

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Early Harappan Civilization
3000-2500 BCE

Fine clay carvings

Cities of Harappa and Mahenjo-Daro thrive

Citywide water systems established

Earlier Aryan Era
1500-1000 BCE

Invasion by Aryans from north central Asia (ca. 1500)

Aryan caste (class) system develops

Iron plow brought from Near East

Writing in Sanskrit:
oral Vedas recorded

Mauryan Dynasty,
India Divided

300 BCE - 500 CE

Oral epic poems written down : Mahabarata and Ramayana

Stone sculpture and architecture

Alexander’s conquest brings Greek ways (326)

Mauryan rulers unite India (324)

Kashan kingdom in north India (from 0 CE)

Harappan Civilization
2500-1500 BCE

Trade with the Near East

Writing system invented (still not deciphered)

Later Aryan Era
1000-300 BCE

Elaborate wooden architecture

Hinduism develops from Aryan beliefs

Gautama Buddha lives, teaches

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